GEOGRAPHY AS THE BASIS OF GIS
In the rush to create bigger and better technical solutions, many in the GIS industry tend to forget that the discipline known as “geography” is the basis of GIS. GIS provides nothing more than the opportunity to manipulate and analyse geographical phenomena using automated systems. In fact, Michael Goodchild, director of the US National Center for Geographic Information Analysis (NCGIA) quite “recently” suggested (Goodchild 1992) that the acronym GIS should be understood to stand for “geographic information science”. This new definition would place more emphasis on analysis of “geographic information” and less on “system”.
Continue reading GEOGRAPHY IN BUSINESS? – GIS for Business and Service Planning
Over the past few years there has been a remarkable increase in interest is GIS. Many of the earliest users were in universities, government departments and environmental agencies. Activity in these traditional core areas is now being supplemented by vigorous growth in several emerging markets, the most important one being business and service planning. For many of these new users, the GIS focus to date has been basic mapping and asset management. Other, more advanced, users are modelling data held in integrated databases. This modelling activity is frequently referred to as spatial analysis.
WHAT IS SPATIAL ANALYSIS?
“Spatial analysis” is one of those terms that are so widely used in so many different contexts that it is difficult to define succinctly. Good child (1988, p; 68) offers a good general definition of spatial analysis as “that set of analytical methods which require access both to the attributes of the objects under study and to their locational information”. Openshaw (1991b, p. 18) suggests that what geographers refer to as “spatial statistics”. Anselin (1989) and Goodchild et. Al (1992) prefer to use the term “spatial data analysis” although there seems to be no substantial difference. Continue reading Implementing Spatial Analysis and GIS Applications for Business and Service Planning
From a marketing perspective, the principal attraction of spatial analysis is still probably a psychological one. Marketeers seem to feel that geography is important in that they know that there are major geographic variations in the demand for products. Maybe they feel that geographers should be able to help them perform better and that there might be methods that geographers know about that could be beneficial to them. Those in the industry who believe this will probably already be displaying more confidence in the value of geography than do many geographers!
Yet at the same time it is evident that there are mutual benefits to both the marketing industry and to geography from closer collaboration. The geographer might gain access to data not in the public domain, new publishing opportunities may arise and there is at least some prospect for technology transfer and commercialization. The marketing industry might gain access to a largely untapped skill base. The question is, however, which methods, which applications, and which new products might be created through such collaborations? Continue reading Marketing Spatial Analysis: A review of prospects and technologies relevant to marketing – GIS For Business and Service Planning
DATA SOURCES AND THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL INTEGRATION
Geodemographics has come into use as a shorthand label for both the development and the application of area typologies that have proved to be powerful discriminators of consumer behaviour and aids to “market analysis”.
Continue reading Geodemographics – GIS for Business and Service Planning
DATA SOURCES AND THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL INTEGRATION
The very nature of competitive business lies in spotting niches and opportunities. Geographical niches are the more difficult to identify when market areas are blurred by the overlay of successive different geographies.
A range of computer software houses have developed products which enable users to gain rapid access to precisely specified sections of databases, while developments in computer graphics allow information to be portrayed in a geographically accurate manner. Business graphics are, in short, becoming increasingly geographical. Continue reading Population Data Sources – GIS for Business and Service Planning
Renowned contributors assess the links between technological change, analytical information and data customization which are now beginning to stimulate the wider adoption of GIS as a management and applied research tool. The first section deals with population data sources, followed by geodemographics and how it is used in customer targeting and product marketing. The next part considers how businesses can adopt GIS and the final segment contains two excellent overviews on how geography is being applied in business. A wealth of illustrations, containing new material from actual commercial and planning applications, enables readers to distinguish between abstract GIS principles and authentic usages. Continue reading GIS for Business and Service Planning – Paul Longley & Graham Clarke
Michael DeMers is an Associate Professor of Geography at New Mexico State University and has been teaching GIS-related courses since 1983. The author of Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems (4th Edition), translated into both Russian and Chinese, and GIS Modeling in Raster, currently being translated into Arabic.
The author thinks GIS is some of the most exciting software to come along in ages, and he wants to get the reader as excited about the possibilities GIS offers as he is. The book gives you a big picture look at GIS – everything from the parts that make up the systems to the spatial information products that the systems produce. Continue reading GIS For Dummies – Michael N. DeMers